Dr. Krashen explains that this idea, The Monitor Hypothesis, shows how language learning (grammar) affects language acquisition. This is, according to Krashen, the useful outcome of learning grammar. It acts as a "monitor" of spoken language. Krashen postulates that this monitor brings refinement and correctness to speech. It acts to correct errors in speaking the second language.He also suggests there are three kinds of people who use The Monitor Hypothesis to one degree or another. There are those who consistently use the monitor to correct their speech. There are those who never learned grammar or choose not to use grammar to monitor their speech. Then, there are those who use their deliberately learned grammar in an appropriate manner in the monitoring of their speech.An extrovert, for example, tends not to use his deliberate learning of the grammar of the second language in actual communication events. Introverts, on the other hand, tend to be perfectionists in how they use what they know about the language (grammar) in the monitoring of their communication in the second language.Academics tend to debate the issue of whether grammar should be taught concurrently with second language acquisition. What makes a lot of sense is that when we learned our native tongue, there was just "language acquisition" taking place until we were able to advance to the first day of our beginning level of formal education. I often hear five- and six-year-old Mexican children using the subjunctive and doing so before they've had any formal, deliberate training in Spanish.The point in my mind, my burning question, is that if it is true we are hardwired for learning language, and we did not learn what we knew when we started our formal education through the conscious learning of grammar rules, then why do we do the opposite when trying to learn how to speak a foreign language? Why do we pay for classes that have us memorize grammar rules and vocabulary words in absolutely no context?The grammar first, or even grammar concurrently, seems to violate the brain's programmingour hardwired instinct to learn language.
The islands of Fiji are well known for its spectacular scenery and world class attraction for sea sports such as big game fishing, snorkeling, sailing and scuba diving. Fiji is a favorite scuba diving location for many scuba divers from all over the world and its highlights include a fantastic variety of colorful soft corals, more than 1200 species of fish, 12 species of whales and dolphins. There are also many scuba diving resorts in Fiji which cater to all kinds of budgets and divers. Alternatively divers can choose live aboard dive boats or if you are a tourist on vacation in Fiji do not know how to scuba dive, you can take up lessons there or simply go snorkeling off the pristine beaches.The Fijian archipelago is encircled by a huge reef and therefore there are many shallow lagoons to swim, snorkel or frolick in. There are also thousands of scuba dive sites to choose from. Most dive locations are easy to get to with plenty of resorts offering scuba diving scattered around the Fijian islands.The water temperature is just perfect for scuba diving with at its coldest at only 25C. On warmer days, it is about 30C. Water visibility in Fiji is excellent with superb visibility of up to 40m or 120ft is a norm rather than exception.Mamanuca dive sites in Fiji is easily be accessible by boat from the Nadi Airport area on the main island of Viti Levu. Several resorts in the Nadi offer full diving facilities and there are numerous day packages for snorkeling and scuba diving. The diving landscape in Mamanucas consist of shallow lagoons with hollows and bommies and excellent marine life. There are some interesting caves to explore, especially in Sawa-i-Lau in the Yasawa Group.If you are in Fiji for a scuba diving vacation, you must dive in the world famous Astrolabe Reef on Kadavu in the Southern Islands. This dive spot has excellent hard and soft corals and abundance marine life. There are more soft corals along the north and south coast with some interesting caves to explore. Majestic drop-off can be found on the western tip of Kadavu.Another excellent dive spot is the Beqa Lagoon to the north of Kadavu boasts of beautiful soft corals, reef bommies and passages. This dive location is famous shark feeding activities with many species of sharks including hammerhead sharks.The Rainbow Reef in Northern Islands is another world famous scuba diving destination. If you are diving in the Rainbow reef, you will enjoy diving the Great White Wall and advanced drift diving through channels.These are just some of the many fabulous scuba diving sites in Fiji.
Chicago, Arlington House, Sunday October 23,2005, 6:30 amAfter thoroughly exploring the Pullman Historic District, we decided to check out Chinatown, one of the many ethnic neighbourhoods that Chicago has to offer. The weather had turned from cool and grey with the occasional peek of sunshine to dark, rainy and cold, so rather than walking around we decided to have an early dinner at a Chinatown restaurant called the Lobster King.Both my friend Linda and I had ordered vegetarian dishes, but after taking our order the waiter returned and informed us that he was going to charge us $2 extra for each dish since vegetables are much more expensive during the winter months. I decided to have a look at their takeout menu and saw that the same low price was listed on the takeout menu as on the main menu. As a result I put forward an argument that if both the dine-in and the take-out menu are stating the same low price for both dishes, I would not agree with being charged an extra $2 for each dish based on a verbal announcement. Either change the menu to include the higher price or charge the prices that are shown on both menus. I am not usually a difficult, picky guest in any hospitality establishment, but to try to charge $2 more for a dish that is listed at a lower price on both menus did not seem a proper business practice to me.The waiter / manager finally agreed to charge us the prices listed on the menu, and the food was indeed delicious. After exploring the Chicago Cultural Center and the Historic Pullman District we had gotten quite hungry and we really enjoyed our early dinner.After reviving ourselves we hopped on the subway because we wanted to check out Little Italy. So we got on the Blue Line and were told to exit at the UIC (University of Illinois) Campus and walk southwards. By that time it was raining and it was a rather inhospitable clammy day. We actually never ended up finding Little Italy, but walked around for about 40 minutes in the rain and after this exercise of futility we decided to pursue our evening plans: to attend a live performance at Second City, Chicago's famous comedy venue.So we took the subway back downtown to Jackson and we waited for the Purple Line until we realized that this line only runs during rush hour on weekdays. So we inquired which line we had to take and we found out that the Brown Line (to Kimball) would take us to "Second City" . At that point we realized that we had also been waiting on the wrong side of the platform. I guess in the Loop el-trains only run in one direction and we had already been wondering why we had seen 3 brown line trains go by on the other side of the platform, but none of them had arrived on our side.I'd say we spent a good 45 minutes waiting on the wrong side of the platform until we finally had enough and went downstairs to ask a CTA employee who directed us onto the correct platform. In the rainy clammy weather this wasn't the most exciting part of our trip, but we managed to entertain ourselves with lots of insider jokes in our original Austrian dialects.Finally we caught a brown line train and made our way up to North Wells Street, into the Old Town Neighbourhood, home of the Second City Comedy Club. Since 1959 Second City has established itself as a Chicago landmark and a national treasure. This theatre has launched the careers of such comic geniuses as John Belushi, Mike Myers, Bill Murray, Gilda Radner, and others more. It offers nightly comedy shows, as well as a variety of other programs and services.The theatre has two main stages, both of which were sold out yesterday, so we headed up onto the 4th floor of the building which houses Donny's Skybox Studio Theatre which is affiliated with Second City. This theatre features an eclectic mix of student productions as well as other alternative shows and at $10.00 per person, the tickets were a steal.The Outreach & Diversity Program produces two to three original shows each year that are performed at Second Citys studio theatre, Donnys Skybox, on the fourth floor of Pipers Alley. At least one of these productions is an original revue written and performed by the Outreach & Diversity ensemble, a group of African American, Latino or Asian actors cast through annual auditions.We bought tickets for the 9 pm show: "Six Degrees of Reparation", a hip comedy revue featuring improv, original material and Second City classic scenes with an urban multicultural twist which was put on by 6 young comedians which included 5 black and 1 oriental performers.The show offered a lot of physical comedy and a variety of different sketches. One of the funniest ones was a sketch entitled "Osama bin Laden could be anywhere", where one of the female comedians donned a big black beard and kept popping up in different everyday situations. The "superior Asian girl" sketch played with A, B, C (Asian, Black, Caucasian) stereotypes and demonstrated how we all have pre-conceived notions of one another. In the "Black Black Awards" sketch the troupe made fun of famous celebrities such as Whitney Houston, Maya Angelou and even Martha Stewart.One of the most poignant sketches was set in an imaginary Office Depot store, where the black and Asian store employees were giving very shoddy and unfriendly service to a variety of customers. At the end, the young black shopkeeper explained that with a wage of $6.50 an hour, after all her costs (food, rent, bus passes, doing her nails, etc.), she was $189 in the hole, and at that price a smile would not be included in the service.We both enjoyed the live performance of these gifted comedians immensely as we both love live theatre and comedy performances. As far as culture is concerned, Chicago has something to offer to everyone.Well, today is our last day here in Chicago, and the weather is forecast to be quite cold with a 60% chance of rain. Fortunately Chicago has many indoor venues to choose from so I am sure we won't get bored.
A Costa Rica Vacation Package is something to be thought about very carefully, even if you have never considered Costa Rica before as a vacation destination.Apart from the fact that Costa Rica is both exotic and tropical, the fact that it is a dream destination for a lot of people ought to make you check it out, because it could be just the right thing to do to book a Costa Rica Tour package this year.There are good reasons for this not the least of which is that Costa Rica is one of the most naturally beautiful places you could ever wish to visit. A tiny South American country has got everything you need for the ultimate in getaway holidays.When you consider the variety of sights to see and places to go, including fiery volcanoes, lush green tropical jungle with lots of unusual and exotic plants, animals and birds. This is not to ignore the beautiful beaches lining the Pacific coast.A Costa Rica Vacation package can include any or all of these things, and then there is the huge variety of places to stay with accommodation to suit every budget.Be a little careful and dont arrive during the high season between December and April hoping to find a good hotel. You need your Costa Rica vacation package in place before you arrive.Private lodges, all inclusive resorts, expensive hotels especially in remote areas should always be reserved in advanced to avoid any problems at all times.If however you are looking for a luxury vacationcosta rica then the Golfo de Papagayo is gret. This part of Costa Rica is where the most expensive hotel in Costa Rica is, and that is the Four Seasons.If you want something within your budget, then you could do worse than go to the Nicoya Peninsula. There are fantastic beaches here, and all types of accommodation and prices.To find lower prices on your Costa Rica Vacation Package try the rainy season between April and November. The weather will still be pretty good just interspersed with short sharp rain showers, so you can save yourself quite a bit of money. One thing to beware of is the mandatory sales and tourism tax of 16.39% on everything!!Nevertheless a Costa Rica Vacation Package can be very good value for money
When it comes to planning a family vacation it can be hard to please everyone in the family. This is especially a problem when you have children of all ages. However, there are 3 great vacation spots that offer up activities for children and adults of all ages and interests.1.Walt Disney World This vacation spot is no secret to anyone but it continues to be one of the most ideal vacation destinations for families. For young children it is the trip of a lifetime getting to see and meet all of the popular Disney characters. Young children will simply be in heaven the second they step foot in Disney World. It is also a popular vacation spot of older children because of the exciting rides. They may not be excited about seeing all the Disney characters, but you can be sure they will love all of the theme parks. 2.Oahu, Hawaii Who could argue against a trip to Hawaii? With so much to do on one small island it is a top choice for any family vacation. Children, young and old, will have the vacation of a lifetime while they play at Waikiki Beach. Old children can venture to the north shore to do some surfing, while the entire family can enjoy a tour of Pearl Harbor. Mix in an eco-tour and attending a luau and you have one amazing vacation the entire family will remember forever.3.Wisconsin Dells, WI Known as the Waterpark Capital of the World, this lesser known vacation spot is a hidden gem. Everyone from adults to young children are sure to find something to do at one of the many Wisconsin Dells attractions that include; waterparks, amusement parks, go karts, mini golf, scenic tours and live entertainment. There is no threat of bad weather because the family can always head back to one of the numerous Wisconsin Dells resorts that offer indoor waterparks. When it comes time to play your next family vacation, plan a trip to one of the destination above and you will have happy vacationers no matter what the age. More importantly, you will make family memories that will last a lifetime.